On the 5th of February John Macartney, a former Jaguar employee and car enthusiast, returned to Probus to present the life of William Morris, Viscount Nuffield. Most of us will have heard of the Morris Motor Company and also of the Nuffield charities but have we connected the two? William Morris was one of the 20th century’s great industrialists and philanthropists.
Born in Worcester and raised in Oxford he started a bicycle repair business at the age of 15. Expanding into motorcycles and then into selling motor cars from his Morris Garages showroom he built his first car in 1913 on a site bought from the Oxford Military College which later grew into the Morris Cowley works. The war saw the demand for cars fall but the company survived by building ‘mine sinkers’ – devices for holding ship mines below the surface.
By the end of the war he was a millionaire. Morris Motors expanded with the acquisition of other companies such as Wolseley and Riley and MG (Morris Garages) was formed in 1929, building sports cars based on components from the saloon cars. Ultimately Morris Motors merged with Austin and the British Motor Corporation was formed.
Morris was a great engineer and industrialist but he is probably as well known today for his charities and philanthropy. He was always a firm believer that workers gave their best if they were secure and healthy and his interest in promoting health care was probably prompted by the death of his two older sisters before the age of 25 and the chronic health issues of his father. The Morris Motor Company had employee benefits which would have been the envy of many modern companies – free health, eye and dental care (this is before the NHS), a pension scheme with widow benefits and so on.
Becoming Viscount Nuffield in 1934 he founded various charities under the Nuffield Organisation – the Nuffield Trust with the aim of improving health care and the Nuffield Foundation to advance education and social welfare. The Nuffield Trust hospitals are often credited as being the model for the NHS.
In later life, after the BMC merger, and the death of his wife and without any heirs, he spent much of his time travelling the world visiting medical research and treatment facilities and it is estimated that he personally donated around £800M at current values to such organisations.
The Galapagos Islands
Arthur Ball, a keen birdwatcher and member of Cheltenham Bird Club, came to Painswick Probus recently to share his experiences visiting the Galapagos Islands. Having signed up for the trip Arthur thought he better learn a bit more about the Galapagos. He knew they were somewhere in the Pacific and teemed with wildlife but that was about it.
In fact they are a province of Equador, about 600 miles out into the Pacific and noted for their endemic species which were studied by Charles Darwin and are considered to be responsible for his theory of evolution. They are located above a fault line and are volcanic in origin, a number are still forming and have active volcanoes. There are 18 main islands and numerous smaller islands and rocks spread over a sizeable area and the whole archipelago is moving slowly towards the South American land mass.
So Arthur and birdwatcher friend set off to Equador landing in the capital Quito before flying out the next day to the islands in a smaller plane. What Arthur hadn’t realised is that Quito is some 9000ft. above see level making any physical exertion very tiring. They landed on Santa Cruz island which has the most significant human population, and from there they joined a small number of others for their guided cruise.
The islands have no land predators and so animals have no fear of humans which allowed Arthur to get some wonderful photos of both birds and land animals which he shared with his audience. Too many tales and photos to repeat here but what was notable was the way the same species had developed differently on islands with different terrain and vegetation. The giant turtles on younger islands where the ground was barren and vegetation was higher up had developed long necks compared to their counterparts on more verdant islands where they could feed from the ground. The Darwin Research Centre on Santa Cruz has 14 types of finch all descended from the same parent but with different characteristics as a result of their island environment.
A very interesting talk, well illustrated and enthusiastically presented by Arthur.
Perestroika : Success or Failure?
Masha Lees returned to Painswick Probus to talk about her view of how Russia had changed from the time of Perestroika until the present, having previously talked about her time living in the Soviet Union and then Russia. Not being a Russian and working for a foreign bank Masha was free to move around in a way denied to many Russians and to form friendships which enabled her to study how the country was changing.
Perestroika (restructuring) started in the 1980’s as a movement within the Communist party and is generally associated with the then leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his policy of glasnost (openness). It is often thought to be the cause of the dissolution of the Soviet Union however the intention was not to end the command economy but to make it work more efficiently by introducing elements of a free market economy. Unfortunately implementation of Perestroika created shortages and political, social and economic tensions which were a large factor in the break-up of the Soviet Union.
Masha took her audience through the period preceding Perestroika until the present day, identifying the key moments and characters involved, both the good and the not so good; the rise of the oligarchs and how they took control of the country’s industry (and most of Knightsbridge); and the rise of Vladimir Putin.
So what was Masha’s conclusion? Success in that many Russians are now more affluent, freer to travel and less isolated, but failure in terms of receding democracy, control by the FSB and criminal organisations, lack of recent cultural development and the poverty of large numbers of Russians. Although Masha may not be optimistic for our future relationship with Russia she encouraged her audience not to be deterred from visiting. The sites are extraordinary and the people are helpful, warm and friendly.
Music, Friendship and the Cotswold Hills : a Life of Gustav Holst
On Wednesday 13th November the Painswick Probus talk was given by Angela Applegate, a volunteer at the Holst Birthplace Museum in Cheltenham. Despite his ultimate fame Holst was a shy and private man and the title of the talk about Holst’s life indicates the things he valued most.
He was born in 1874, full name Gustavus Theodore von Holst, at 4 Pittville Terrace (now Clarence Road) in Cheltenham, to Adolph Holst, a music teacher, and Clara Lidiard the daughter of a Cirencester solicitor. His paternal family were of Swedish and Baltic descent and contained several professional musicians. His great-grandfather Matthias was a music teacher at the Russian court in St. Petersburg and it was he who move to England in 1802. His son Gustav, a composer, appropriated the aristocratic prefix “von” in the hope of furthering his career.
Holst was the elder of two brothers and was only 8 when his mother Clara died. Not a strong child, he was short-sighted and suffered from asthma and neuritis in his right hand. As a child he played the piano and the violin and later, at his fathers suggestion, the trombone hoping it would strengthen his chest. At the age of only 17 he was appointed as organist and choirmaster at Wick Rissington which included the post of conductor of the Bourton-on-the-Water choral society. It was here he got his taste for conducting. He always loved walking in the Cotswolds and he would often walk from his home in Cheltenham to Wick Rissington, although this may also have been to save money.
At 18 he wrote an operetta entitled ‘Lansdown Castle’ which was well received and ignited his desire to compose. A year later he left to study at the Royal College of Music and he would play in orchestras and seaside summer bands to support himself while studying. At the age of 21 he met fellow student Ralph Vaughan Williams, another Gloucestershire lad, and they became lifelong friends.
He was married in 1901 to Isobel and they set up home in London where he was teaching music. Their only child Imogen was also a accomplished composer, conductor and teacher and for many years was musical assistant to Benjamin Britten.
Composing was not paying the bills and a career as a concert pianist was out of the question because of his weak right hand, so he supported his family by teaching in schools and colleges which he continued until his death. He was a good teacher and enjoyed it and was noted for revolutionising the teaching of girls particularly at St.Pauls School in Hammersmith. In appreciation the school built him a soundproof room for his composing.
Rejected for Army service he began to write the Planets during WW1. The work was inspired by his lifelong interest in astrology. It was also at this time that he dropped the ‘von’ from his name as it sounded too Germanic. Finally at the end of the War he was given a post with the YMCA in Greece and it was while he was away that the first public performance of the Planets was performed.
Now he was famous and in demand but he was never really comfortable with his fame. He continued to teach and compose until his death from a heart attack at the age of 59. Apart from the Planets he is probably best known for the music entitled ‘Cranham’ for the carol ‘In The Bleak Midwinter’ and inspired by his childhood visits to his mother’s village. He was in fact a prolific composer, much of his work was quite progressive and influenced many other well known composers but is seldom performed.
Angela concluded her excellent talk with a description of the Holst Birthplace Museum in Cheltenham and the ‘Gustav Holst Way’ a signed 35 mile footpath from Cranham through Cheltenham to Wick Rissington created in 2011 to celebrate Holst’s connection with the area and his love of rambling.
Life in the East End, A Story of a Fancy Box Cutter
The fancy box cutter refers to Martin Collisson’s grandfather, Henry Charles Collisson who was born in the East End in 1860, worked as a busker, then a trawlerman and finally for 56 years as a Fancy Box Cutter. Martin was only 6 when Henry died in 1949 so he was unable to learn much about his grandfather directly but since he has researched his life and that of others in his East End family and he used this as a theme for his description of East End life through the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries.
Although Henry was a box cutter for 56 years it was his life outside work that Martin discovered to be more eventful and often tragic. Married three times – the first two were sisters, he sired 23 children – 16 within wedlock and was a part time bigamist – you were not allowed to marry your ex wife’s sister at the time. His first wife killed herself, his second killed her two daughters and was committed to Broadmoor where she died of an epileptic fit and his third lost three of her seven children in infancy. But this was the late Victorian period and these circumstances were not unusual in such areas, there was intense poverty, sanitation was poor and malnutrition was common. Fortunately Martin’s talk was not all doom and gloom and he presented a host of interesting facts and descriptions of East End life: through thee centuries. Such as :
Where is the East End and who is a Cockney.
The various immigrants that have arrived over the years and their influence on the culture and trade.
The many famous and infamous residents.
The summer trips to the hop fields of Kent.
The Pearly Kings and Queens and their history.
The markets, the theatres, the pubs, the docks and so much more.
But fortunately not one mention of the TV programme!
Quaint and Quirky Gloucestershire
Previously Angela Panrucker has talked to Probus about the history of pub signs. This is a passion she shares with her husband Terry and they travel the length and breadth of the country researching and photographing these signs. Never without a camera they often come across other interesting items in their travels which most of us may never notice. For the talk on 2 Oct 2019 talk Angela had assembled a collection of photographs of the quaint and quirky things she had found in Gloucestershire, maybe not always quaint but definitely quirky.
Far too many examples to discuss here but a few of the categories were: statues and stone carvings, wells and well dressings, Green Man carvings, maypoles, village signs (Painswick and Upton St Leonards got mention) stocks, whipping posts and lock-ups, pillar boxes and posting houses, milestones, graves and tombs, finger posts and more.
Of particular note locally were the thatched posting house at Severn Springs which most of the audience thought was a bus stop. In fact it was a building where the post was left and collected. Also the lock-up in Bisley. Lock-ups were small buildings where the drunk and disorderly could cool off overnight and Bisley is notable for having a twin cell version, presumably for the two parties in a ‘domestic’. Hexagonal post boxes were only manufactured between 1866 and 1879 and around 80 were produced. Cheltenham has 8 and Gloucestershire has 10, more than any other county and one fine example stands outside Gloucester Cathedral. The church at Littledean has a clock face with Roman numerals but 11 o’clock has the symbol IX not XI. The story goes that the clockmaker’s wife told him to be home from the pub by 11 o’clock but XI never came!
The message from Angela is – take your camera and keep your eyes open.
Pen and Polisher
Painswick Probus members were intrigued to discover the subject of this talk by Diana Whitaker. It turned out that it was in two parts – first the ‘pen’, her life as a journalist and then the ‘polisher’, her job as a cleaner and help to a very unusual client.
Leaving university in the early 60’s the opportunities for women were limited. Teaching was popular but did not appeal, the theatre was her goal but by chance she ended up in journalism. For many years she worked on several publications around the south west including Cotswold Life and the Stroud News & Journal. Her speciality was articles on the various towns and villages around the area including interviews with the famous and the not so famous. The pay was poor but the people made the job enjoyable and Di was constantly amazed how many had an interesting story to tell. The best interviews were often after chance meetings and the people to avoid were usually those who volunteered themselves. She entertained her audience with anecdotes about the people and places of the region and how the things had progressed over her career.
The second part of the story, the Polisher, starts when Di gave up work to look after her children. She was looking for some work more compatible with family life when a friend told her of a neighbour looking for a cleaner and general help. A knock on the door was answered by a lady with a very aristocratic bearing called Pamela Jackson. They hit it off and Di started work. She found Pamela to be a very likeable and interesting woman but was curious to know exactly who she was. This curiosity was heightened when Di came across photos by Cecil Beaton and first edition books by the Mitfords. It turned out that Pamela was the least well known of the six notorious Mitford sisters; Unity, Jessica, Diana, Nancy, Deborah and Pamela. Although she had not been in the limelight like most of her sisters Di found her to have led a fascinating life which she could recall in great detail. Pamela and Di became close and Di was introduced to others in the family. This was when her journalistic background took over and she started to write a book about Pamela’s life. The book was entitled “The Other Mitford: Pamela’s Story” and Di entertained Probus with various extracts from it. Sadly Pamela died shortly Quaint and Quirky Gloucestershirebefore it was published but the family, particularly Deborah (Duchess of Devonshire) and Max Mosley (son of Diana), were very supportive in providing material for the book.
Altogether a very interesting and entertaining talk.
Of Sons And Skies
Painswick Probus started their new season with a talk by Robert Arley titled “Of Sons And Skies”.
This was based on his book of the same title which looks at the contribution of the allied air-forces to the defeat of the Nazis. A retired professional communicator, and initially not being especially interested in WW2 or aviation history, the idea for the book came as a result of interviewing people when working as a TV producer, particularly air-force ground crew, about their wartime experiences.
Robert’s talk took his audience chronologically through the war years presenting some of the lesser known facts about the contribution of the allied airmen, both pilots and ground crew. Only a few years before the outbreak of the war men were still flying around in bi-planes but Hitler was mobilising German industry in preparation for his assault. Through the war technological developments on both sides were impressive as were the sheer number of aircraft produced and lost but this only emphasised the awful risks that the aircrews were taking.
A thought provoking talk 80 years after the outbreak of WW2.
A Taste of Africa
On the 10th of July David Lemon returned from Princetown to regale us with some of the more amusing aspects of life in central Africa.
His knack for seeing the funny and at times absurd side of what otherwise seemed to be quite a poor quality of life was hilarious – for example, 24 hour shops which opened between only 9am-6pm, roads more pot-holed than not, one pothole enough for a chap to have a bath in, and a road sign that threatened potholes for the next 9600 kilometres!
Personal transport was not neglected with slides of 6 people on a moped, horse-drawn vehicles so loaded that the driver could not possibly see where he was going, a slide of a cow being moved on top of an estate car and another on a motor bike. A goat riding pillion, about 100 house bricks laid as in a wall covering a bicycle with a hole for the pusher to steer, the ingenuity in all walks of life were astounding. Coffins were for sale outside an Accident & Emergency department.
Despite the abject poverty and very much a make do and mend culture, there were smiles galore from young and old, quite inspiring under their multiple problems of hunger, shortages, dictators and extreme climate.
David had a warning about charitable giving to Africa – be very careful who receives your donations as there are many very rich men in Africa who syphon off charities’ income, the needy and deserving rarely seeing any of the money. Try to choose very specific projects with clear aims and goals and you could be safe, but unfortunately not always.
The Evolution of Battlefield Intelligence & Situational Awareness
On the 12th June 2019 Dr. Tom Shannon returned to Painswick Probus, this time to talk about developments in battlefield intelligence.
In war it is vital to know as much as possible about your enemy’s capabilities; Tom’s talk was about the progression of military reconnaissance over the years. The telescope in the 1600’s and, later, binoculars were a vast improvement on the naked eye. Tethered balloons were used above the trenches in WW1 but they were easy prey for artillery. Aerial reconnaissance using aircraft and cameras became possible during WW1 and by WW II was capable of overwhelming interpretation staff with millions of photographs. Time was of the essence when processing and interpreting film.
Today we have satellites, edge-of-space spy planes, and unmanned aerial vehicles (drones) all equipped with high powered cameras, that can transmit immediately images and 3D maps of terrain, by day and night. The challenge for today’s commander is the analysis of the mass of data and the need to make timely decisions based on that data.
The Hugely Huggable History of the Teddy Bear
The talk on 15 May 2019 was a history of the teddy bear by the excellent speaker Dr. Gillian White. She really got down to the bear necessities and the touching history of this unique toy.
For all time toys have gone in and out of fashion, but the teddy bear has seen over a century of love and affection from generations of children [and adults].
Stuffed cloth bears were developed by the Steiff family in Ulm, Germany and Morris Mitchcom in the USA, simultaneously but independently in 1902.
To this day the designs have little varied and of course some have become part of literature’s legacy; Paddington Bear , Whinnie the Pooh and Teddy Bears picnics spring to mind, and whenever bears are mentioned there is always an appreciative mmm….. as if to witness the affe8ction that most people have for teddy bears .
The name Teddy came from Teddy Roosevelt the American president, for once refusing to shoot a bear.
Rare teddy bears have been sold for staggering sums, but they will always remain as friends and dependable toys for generations to come. I rather missed out as I did not have a teddy when I was a child.
British Waterways Heritage Working Boats Project
On 1 May 2019 Vince Williams returned to address the Club on the formation, funding, training, and skills of the British Waterways Heritage Working Boats Project, a volunteer group which restores, maintains and operates a fleet of 4 historic canal vessels.
The narrow-boats are taken to events throughout the Midlands for display to the general public to provide an insight in to life on a working narrow-boat. They are also used as an education resource at events during the year, giving an opportunity for school children to step aboard a working narrow-boat. At all of the events volunteers are on hand to show people over the boats, explain the history of working narrow-boats and the people that worked and lived on the canals.
Birds, Tigers and the Taj
Arriving in Delhi in the late evening, Arthur was amazed by how busy the place was, even at midnight. Despite thinking he was prepared for the sights of India he was still shocked by the contrast between the streets outside and the luxury of their hotel.
A trip to the local wetlands yielded many photographs of beautiful coloured birds which were totally new to the birdwatchers.
Next it was up to the Himalayan foothills and this presented an opportunity to visit the Corbett national park, a wildlife sanctuary set up in 1935 by a hunter turned conservationist. While riding on elephants the group came within yards of a tiger but would have totally missed it if not for the warning growls of the elephants.
The Taj Mahal presented Arthur with some beautiful photos, looking pink in the morning sunrise it transformed to a dazzling white as the sun rose.
A stay in a hunting lodge and a visit to the Ranthambore tiger reserve were next on the itinerary and this produced the highlight of the trip. Again riding on the backs of elephants the group set off in different directions in the hope of seeing tigers. Whether it was luck or having the most experienced tracker, Arthur’s group came across a beautiful tiger and her two cubs and his photos, taken within yards of the animals, really conveyed the beauty and the power of the beasts.
All too soon it was back home but a memorable visit to just a small part of a fascinating country during which 284 different types of birds were spotted of which 206 were totally new to the group.
Reports about earlier events may be seen in the Archive